Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - CAM 20118
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Polysomnography and portable sleep apnea testing (with sensors for respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively with peripheral arterial tone [PAT], actigraphy, and oxygen saturation) are established methods for diagnosing OSA. Other proposed methods of diagnosing OSA include limited channel home sleep monitors.
The policy statements focus on criteria for the diagnosis of sleep apnea for procedures considered standard of care and are based in part on evidence-based practice guidelines. In addition, clinical input was obtained on several occasions to assess, among other items, the sensors required for portable monitors, diagnosis of OSA in children, and screening of patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. Informed by clinical input and clinical practice guidelines, testing is indicated for patients who are suspected of OSA, prior to bariatric surgery, for certain pediatric patients, and with type 4 monitors under certain circumstances.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This causes a drop in blood oxygenation and brief arousal and can occur as frequently as every minute throughout the night. The main risk factors for OSA include obesity, male sex, older age, large neck size, instability of the respiratory control system, and craniofacial dysmorphisms; additional factors include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Since disorders linked to OSA are more common in ethnic minority groups, there are data supporting an increased risk of OSA in African Americans and American Indians.
The most common signs and symptoms in adults are snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and hypertension. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be subjective and is assessed by questionnaires such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a short self-administered, questionnaire that asks patients how likely they are to fall asleep in different scenarios such as watching TV, sitting quietly in a car, or sitting and talking to someone. Daytime sleepiness is uncommon in young children with OSA. Symptoms in children may include disturbed sleep and daytime neurobehavioral problems. In otherwise healthy children, OSA is usually associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and/or obesity.
The hallmark of OSA is snoring. The snoring abruptly ceases during the apneic episodes and during the brief period of patient arousal and then resumes when the patient again falls asleep. The sleep fragmentation associated with repeated sleep disruption can lead to impairment of daytime activity. Adults with OSA-associated daytime somnolence are thought to be at higher risk for collisions involving motorized vehicles (i.e., cars, trucks, heavy equipment), while OSA in children may result in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral problems.
OSA can also affect the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems.1 For example, apnea leads to periods of hypoxemia, alveolar hypoventilation, hypercapnia, and acidosis. This, in turn, can cause systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale. Systemic hypertension is common in patients with OSA. Severe OSA is also associated with decreased survival, presumably related to severe hypoxemia, hypertension, or an increase in automobile collisions related to daytime sleepiness. It is estimated that about 7% of adults have moderate or severe OSA, 20% have mild OSA, and the referral population of OSA patients represents a small proportion of patients who have clinically significant and treatable disease.1
Obstructive sleep apnea is widely underdiagnosed with up to 95% of individuals with clinically significant OSA reporting no prior OSA diagnosis. Moreover, underdiagnosis is particularly prevalent in Black patients. The criterion standard for a diagnosis of sleep disorders is a polysomnogram performed in a sleep laboratory.2 A standard polysomnogram includes electroencephalogram (EEG), submental electromyogram, and electrooculogram (to detect rapid eye movement sleep) for sleep staging. Polysomnography (PSG) also typically includes electrocardiography and monitoring of respiratory airflow and effort, snoring, oxygen desaturation, and sleep position. An attended study ensures that the electrodes and sensors are functioning adequately and do not dislodge during the night. In addition, an attendant is able to identify severe OSA in the first part of the night and titrate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the second part of the night, commonly known as a "split-night" study. If successful, this strategy eliminates the need for additional PSG for CPAP titration.
Table 1. Definitions of Terms and Scoring Criteria for OSA
|Apnea||The frequency of apneas and hypopneas is measured from channels assessing oxygen desaturation, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort. In adults, apnea is defined as a drop in airflow by 90% or more of pre-event baseline for at least 10 seconds. Due to faster respiratory rates in children, pediatric scoring criteria define an apnea as 2 or more missed breaths, regardless of its duration in seconds.|
|Hypopnea||Hypopnea in adults is scored when the peak airflow drops by at least 30% of pre-event baseline for at least 10 seconds in association with either at least 3% or 4% arterial oxygen desaturation (depending on criteria) or an arousal. Hypopneas in children are scored by a 50% or greater drop in nasal pressure and either a 3% or more decrease in oxygen saturation or associated arousal.|
|RERA||Respiratory event-related arousal is defined as an event lasting at least 10 seconds associated with flattening of the nasal pressure waveform and/or evidence of increased respiratory effort, terminating in arousal but not otherwise meeting criteria for apnea or hypopnea.|
|Respiratory event reporting|
|AHI||The apnea/hypopnea index is the average number of apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep.|
|RDI||The respiratory disturbance index is the number of apneas, hypopneas, or respiratory event-related arousals per hour of sleep time. RDI is often used synonymously with the AHI.|
|REI||The respiratory event index is the number of events per hour of monitoring time. Used as an alternative to AHI or RDI in-home sleep studies when actual sleep time from EEG is not available.|
|OSA||Obstructive sleep apnea is repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction due to the collapse and obstruction of the upper airway during sleep.|
|Mild OSA||In adults: AHI or RDI of 5 to < 15. In children: AHI ≥ 1.0 to < 5|
|Moderate OSA||AHI or RDI of 15 to < 30; Children: AHI of ≥ 5 to < 10|
|Severe OSA||Adults: AHI or RDI ≥ 30; Children: AHI of ≥ 10|
|UARS||Upper airway resistance syndrome is characterized by a partial collapse of the airway and results in increased resistance to airflow. The increased respiratory effort is associated with multiple sleep fragmentations, as measured by very short alpha EEG arousals.|
|Positive airway pressure|
|APAP||Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure may be used either to provide treatment or to determine the most effective pressure for CPAP.|
|PAP||PAP may be CPAP or APAP or bi-PAP. CPAP is a more familiar abbreviation for delivery of positive airway pressure.|
|PAP failure||Usually defined as an AHI > 20 events per hour while using CPAP|
|PAP intolerance||CPAP use for < 4 hours per night for ≥ 5 nights per week, or refusal to use CPAP. CPAP intolerance may be observed in patients with mild, moderate, or severe OSA.|
AHI: Apnea/Hypopnea Index; APAP: auto-adjusting positive airway pressure; bi-PAP: bi-level positive airway pressure; CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; EEG: electroencephalogram; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea; PAP: positive airway pressure; RDI: Respiratory Disturbance Index; REI: Respiratory Event Index; RERA: respiratory event-related arousal: UARS: upper airway resistance syndrome.
A variety of devices have been developed specifically to evaluate OSA at home. They range from portable full PSG systems to single-channel oximeters. Available devices evaluate different parameters, which may include oximetry, respiratory and cardiac monitoring, and sleep/wake activity, but most portable monitors do not record EEG activity.
The novel SleepImage System for diagnosis of OSA is described in Table 2.
Table 2. Novel Devices for OSA Diagnosis
|Device||Manufacturer||Description||FDA Marketing Clearance||FDA Product Code||Year|
|SleepImage System||MyCardio||Software as a medical device that provides automated analysis of sleep data from a single photoplethysmogram sensor to aid in the evaluation of sleep disorders.||K163696||MNR||2017|
FDA: Food and Drug Administration; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea
10106 Home Apnea Monitoring
20199 Polysomnography for Non-Respiratory Sleep Disorders
80167 Medical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
A single unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of 3 recording channels with the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or alternatively peripheral arterial tone (PAT), oximetry, and actigraphy may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in adults who are at high-risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and have no evidence of a health condition that might alter ventilation or require alternative treatment (i.e., central sleep apnea, heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, neuromuscular disorders with sleep-related symptoms, injurious or potentially injurious parasomnias, or narcolepsy). The Policy Guidelines section defines high pretest probability.
A single unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of recording channels as described above, may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY as a screening tool in individuals who are scheduled for bariatric surgery and have no evidence of a health condition that might alter ventilation or require alternative treatment (see Policy Guidelines section).
Unattended home sleep studies are investigational/unproven therefore considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY in children (< 18 years of age).
Repeated unattended (unsupervised) home sleep apnea test with a minimum of 3 recording channels with the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or alternatively PAT, oximetry, and actigraphy, may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in adults under the following circumstances:
- To assess efficacy of surgery or oral appliances or devices; OR
- To reevaluate the diagnosis of OSA and need for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (eg, if there is a significant change in weight or change in symptoms suggesting that CPAP should be retitrated or possibly discontinued).
Supervised polysomnography (PSG) performed in a sleep laboratory may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY in individuals with a moderate or high pretest probability of OSA in the following situations:
- Pediatric individuals (i.e., < 18 years of age); OR
- When individuals do not meet criteria for an unattended home sleep apnea test as described above; OR
- A previous home study failed to establish the diagnosis of OSA in an individual with a high pretest probability of OSA; OR
- A previous home study was technically inadequate; OR
- Failure of resolution of symptoms or recurrence of symptoms during treatment; OR
- When testing is done to rule out other sleep disorders such as central sleep apnea, injurious or potentially injurious parasomnias, or narcolepsy (see evidence review 2.01.99); OR
- Presence of a comorbidity that might alter ventilation or decrease the accuracy of a home sleep apnea test, including, but not limited to heart failure, neuromuscular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, or obesity hypoventilation syndrome.
A repeated, supervised PSG performed in a sleep laboratory may be considered medically necessary in individuals who meet the criteria above for an in-laboratory PSG under the following circumstances:
- To initiate and titrate CPAP in adults who have:
- An Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI) or Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) of at least 15 events per hour, OR
- An AHI or RDI of at least 5 events per hour in an individual with 1 or more signs or symptoms associated with OSA (eg, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or stroke);
Note: A split-night study, in which moderate-to-severe OSA is documented during the first portion of the study using PSG, followed by CPAP during the second portion of the study, can eliminate the need for a second study to titrate CPAP (see Policy Guidelines section for criteria to perform a split-night study).
- To initiate and titrate CPAP in children:
- In pediatric individuals, an AHI or RDI of ≥5; OR
- An AHI or RDI ≥ 1.5 in an individual with excessive daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems, or hyperactivity.
- To assess efficacy of surgery (including adenotonsillectomy) or oral appliances/devices.
Supervised or unattended home sleep apnea tests that do not meet the above criteria is investigational/unproven therefore considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY.
Multiple sleep latency testing is investigational/unproven therefore considered NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY in the diagnosis of OSA.
The following supplies are included in the rental. After purchanse has been met, the replacement supplies are covered based on medical
necessity; however, the maximum allowed frequency is below
Polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep apnea testing should be performed in appropriately selected individuals and the test summary results reviewed by a physician who is trained in sleep medicine.
Medical professionals who interpret a polysomnogram or home sleep apnea test should be trained in sleep medicine and should review the raw data from PSG and home sleep apnea tests to detect artifacts and data loss.
Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Although not an exclusive list, individuals with all of the following symptoms are considered to be at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA):
- habitual snoring;
- observed apneas;
- excessive daytime sleepiness;
- a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 kg/m2.
If no bed partner is available to report snoring or observed apneas, other signs and symptoms suggestive of OSA (e.g., age of the individual, male gender, thick neck, craniofacial or upper airway soft tissue abnormalities, unexplained hypertension) may be considered. Objective clinical prediction rules are being developed; at present, risk assessment is based primarily on clinical judgment.
The STOP-BANG questionnaire, a method developed for nonsleep specialists, assesses the signs and symptoms of OSA (snore, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure, BMI, age, neck, gender), has been shown to have 97% sensitivity and 96% negative predictive value (specificity, 33%) for the identification of individuals with severe OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] > 30 events per hour). Overnight oximetry has been used by some sleep specialists as a component of the risk assessment but is inadequate for the diagnosis of OSA. Therefore, a follow-up PSG or home sleep apnea test would still be required to confirm or exclude a diagnosis of OSA.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children
The presentation of OSA in children may differ from that of adults. Children frequently exhibit behavioral problems or hyperactivity rather than daytime sleepiness. Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than the 90th percentile for the weight/height ratio. Although the definition of severe OSA in children is not well established, an AHI or Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) greater than 1.5 events per hour is considered abnormal (an AHI or RDI ≥10 events per hour may be considered severe).
Screening for OSA should be performed routinely in individuals scheduled for bariatric surgery, due to the high prevalence of OSA in this population. The optimal screening approach is not certain. An in-laboratory PSG or home sleep apnea test is the most accurate screening method. Some experts recommend a symptom-based screening instrument, followed by PSG in individuals who exceed a certain threshold, as an alternative to performing PSG in all individuals. It should be noted that there is a high prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in individuals who are candidates for bariatric surgery. Therefore, obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be ruled out prior to home sleep apnea testing in this population.
Significant Weight change
There is no established threshold for significant change in weight. Studies have reported improvements in OSA with an average weight loss of 20 kg or 20% of body weight.
Multiple Sleep Latency Test
The multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is an objective measure of the tendency to fall asleep in the absence of alerting factors, while the maintenance of wakefulness test is an objective measure of the ability to stay awake under soporific conditions (used to assess occupational safety). The MSLT and maintenance of wakefulness test are not routinely indicated in the evaluation and diagnosis of OSA or in the assessment of change following treatment with CPAP. The MSLT may be indicated in the evaluation of individuals with suspected narcolepsy to confirm the diagnosis (often characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations) or to differentiate between suspected idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy. Narcolepsy and OSA can co-occur. Because it is not possible to differentiate between the excessive sleepiness caused by OSA and by narcolepsy, OSA should be treated before confirming a diagnosis of narcolepsy with the MSLT.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine practice parameters (2005) have indicated that a split-night study (initial diagnostic PSG followed by CPAP titration during PSG on the same night) is an alternative to 1 full night of diagnostic PSG followed by a second night of titration if the following 4 criteria are met:
- An AHI of at least 40 events per hour is documented during a minimum of 2 hours of diagnostic PSG. Split-night studies may sometimes be considered at an AHI between 20 and 40 events per hour, based on clinical judgment (e.g., if there are also repetitive long obstructions and major desaturations). However, at AHI values below 40, determination of CPAP-level requirements, based on split-night studies, may be less accurate than in full-night calibrations.
- CPAP titration is carried out for more than 3 hours (because respiratory events can worsen as the night progresses).
- PSG documents that CPAP eliminates or nearly eliminates the respiratory events during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, including REM sleep with the individual in the supine position.
- A second full night of PSG for CPAP titration is performed if the diagnosis of a sleep-related breathing disorder is confirmed, but criteria 2 and 3 are not met.
Categorization of Polysomnography and Portable Monitoring
Full correspondence does not exist between Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and the most current categorization scheme for the different types of studies. The 2005 practice parameters from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine list 4 types of monitoring procedures: type 1, standard attended in-lab comprehensive PSG; type 2, comprehensive portable PSG; type 3, modified portable sleep apnea testing (also referred to as cardiorespiratory sleep studies), consisting of 4 or more channels of monitoring; and type 4, continuous single or dual bioparameters, consisting of 1 or 2 channels, typically oxygen saturation, or airflow. Types 1 and 2 would be considered polysomnographic studies, and types 3 and 4 would be considered polygraphic sleep studies. The terms sleep studies and PSG are often used interchangeably. CPT coding distinguishes between sleep studies that do not include electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, and PSG, which includes EEG monitoring. PSG is usually conducted in a sleep laboratory and attended by a technologist, but may also be conducted with type 2 portable monitoring. The type of study is further characterized as attended (supervised) or unattended by a technologist. Home or portable monitoring implies unattended sleep studies, typically conducted in the individual's home. There are no specific codes for remotely monitored home sleep studies. They would likely be reported with the CPT code for the sleep study with the GT modifier ("via interactive audio and video telecommunications systems") appended. There is no CPT code for "unattended" PSG.
Cardiorespiratory sleep studies without EEG may be called polygraphic studies and can be attended or unattended by a technologist. CPT codes 95807 and 95806 distinguish polygraphic sleep studies that are attended or unattended, but there are no codes that distinguish between type 3 and type 4 sleep studies. A wide variety of portable monitors and proprietary automated scoring systems are being tested and marketed, but the optimum combination of sensors and scoring algorithms is currently unknown. Current recommendations are that the portable monitoring device have 4 channels (oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, respiratory airflow, heart rate) and permit review of the raw data. Type 4 monitors with fewer than 3 channels are not recommended due to reduced diagnostic accuracy and higher failure rates. As with attended PSG, it is important that the raw data from home sleep studies be reviewed by a professional trained in sleep medicine to detect artifacts and data loss.
See the Codes table for details.
BlueCard/National Account Issues
State or federal mandates (e.g., FEP) may dictate that all FDA-approved devices, drugs or biologics may not be considered investigational and thus these devices may be assessed only on the basis of their medical necessity.
Evidence reviews assess the clinical evidence to determine whether the use of technology improves the net health outcome. Broadly defined, health outcomes are the length of life, quality of life, and ability to function including benefits and harms. Every clinical condition has specific outcomes that are important to patients and managing the course of that condition. Validated outcome measures are necessary to ascertain whether a condition improves or worsens; and whether the magnitude of that change is clinically significant. The net health outcome is a balance of benefits and harms.
To assess whether the evidence is sufficient to draw conclusions about the net health outcome of technology, 2 domains are examined: the relevance, and quality and credibility. To be relevant, studies must represent 1 or more intended clinical use of the technology in the intended population and compare an effective and appropriate alternative at a comparable intensity. For some conditions, the alternative will be supportive care or surveillance. The quality and credibility of the evidence depend on study design and conduct, minimizing bias and confounding that can generate incorrect findings. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is preferred to assess efficacy; however, in some circumstances, nonrandomized studies may be adequate. Randomized controlled trials are rarely large enough or long enough to capture less common adverse events and long-term effects. Other types of studies can be used for these purposes and to assess generalizability to broader clinical populations and settings of clinical practice.
Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Clinical Context and Test Purpose
The purpose of home sleep apnea tests in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to diagnose the condition and to inform a decision on appropriate treatment.
The question addressed in this evidence review is: Do home sleep apnea tests improve the net health outcome in patients with suspected OSA?
The following PICO was used to select literature to inform this review.
The relevant population of interest is patients with suspected OSA.
The test being considered is home sleep apnea testing. Tests reviewed are multichannel home sleep testing and limited channel sleep testing (auto-adjusting positive airway pressure [APAP], Apnea Risk Evaluation System).
The established test for OSA is in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). Laboratory PSG is a more complex procedure than home testing and is more limited in its availability.
The general outcomes of interest are the number of apneas or hypopneas during sleep, measured by the Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI), and subjective symptoms of sleepiness, typically measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) or the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) (Table 3).
Table 3. Health Outcome Measures Relevant to OSA
|Outcome||Measure||Description||Clinically Meaningful Difference (If Known)|
|Change in AHI||AHI||Mean change in AHI from baseline to post-treatment||Change from severe-to-moderate or mild OSA|
|AHI success||Percentage of patients achieving success||Studies may use different definitions of success, but the most common for AHI success is the Sher criteria||Sher criteria include a decrease in AHI of ≥ 50% and an AHI < 20 events per hour. Alternative measures of success may be AHI < 15, < 10, or < 5 events per hour|
|ODI||Oxygen levels in blood during sleep||The number of times per hour of sleep that the blood oxygen level drops by ≥ 4 percentage points||More than 5 events per hour|
|ESS||Scale ranges from 0 to 24||The ESS is a short self-administered questionnaire that asks patients how likely they are to fall asleep in 8 different situations (e.g., watching TV, sitting quietly in a car, or sitting and talking to someone)||An ESS of ≥ 10 is considered excessively sleepy. A decrease of 2 points is considered the MID.3|
|FOSQ||30 questions||Disease-specific QOL questionnaire that evaluates functional status related to excessive sleepiness||A score of ≥ 18 is the threshold for normal sleep-related functioning, and a change of ≥ 2 points is considered a clinically meaningful improvement|
AHI: Apnea/Hypopnea Index; ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Scale; FOSQ: Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire; MID: minimal important difference; ODI: oxygen desaturation Index; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea; QOL: quality of life.
Beneficial outcomes of a true-positive test are effective treatment resulting in a decrease in respiratory events during sleep and a reduction in subject sleepiness.
Harmful outcomes of a false-positive test include unnecessary treatment. Harmful outcomes of a false-negative test include not receiving the correct treatment.
Study Selection Criteria
For the evaluation of clinical validity of home sleep apnea testing, studies that meet the following eligibility criteria were considered:
- Reported on the accuracy of the marketed version of the technology (including any algorithms used to calculate scores)
- Included a suitable reference standard
- Patient/sample clinical characteristics were described
- Patient/sample selection criteria were described.
Review of Evidence
Multichannel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
Balk et al. (2011) conducted a comparative effectiveness review for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) on the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in adults.4 Reviewers found strong evidence that an AHI greater than 30 events per hour is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, with low or insufficient evidence for an association between AHI and other clinical outcomes. Reviewers found moderate evidence that type 3 and 4 monitors may have the ability to accurately predict an AHI suggestive of OSA and that type 3 monitors perform better than type 4 monitors at AHI cutoffs of 5, 10, and 15 events per hour.
Randomized Controlled Trials
Home sleep testing with 3 recording channels that include respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, but not heart rate, are considered by some, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid, to be sufficient for home sleep apnea tests. Corral et al. (2017) reported a multicenter noninferiority trial of home sleep testing using a 3-channel monitor compared with in-laboratory PSG in 430 patients.5 Included in the study were patients referred to tertiary hospitals in Spain for suspected OSA, who had snoring or sleep apneas observed by a partner, ESS score of 10 or greater, and absence of clinical suspicion of any other sleep pathology. Both groups of patients who were diagnosed with OSA received continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration with a single APAP session at home. The median baseline ESS score was 13 in both groups. CPAP was indicated in 68% of patients in the PSG arm compared with 53% in the home sleep testing group, with the difference attributed to the underestimation of AHI in-home sleep studies. All patients, including those treated with CPAP and those who were not, were assessed at a 6-month follow-up. ESS score improved by -4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.8 to -3.6) in the home sleep testing group and by -4.9 (95% CI, -5.4 to -4.3) in the PSG group. With a noninferiority margin of 2 points on the ESS, home sleep testing was noninferior to in-laboratory PSG.
Subsection Summary: Multichannel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
Based on this evidence and society guidelines, portable monitoring with a minimum of 4 recording channels (including oxygen saturation, respiratory movements, airflow, an electrocardiogram or heart rate), or with a device that measures peripheral arterial tone (PAT), actigraphy, and oxygen saturation, for the diagnosis of OSA in adults who are at high-risk for OSA improves outcomes, when clinical evaluation and follow-up are conducted by a medical professional experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.
Limited Channel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
Use of Auto-Adjusting Positive Airway Pressure for Diagnosis and Treatment Supervised by a Sleep Specialist
Randomized Controlled Trials
Mulgrew et al. (2007) published a randomized validation study of the diagnosis and management of OSA with a single-channel monitor followed by APAP.6 They developed a diagnostic algorithm that had a 94% positive predictive value for moderate-to-severe OSA assessed by PSG. Patients who passed the screening (N = 68) were randomized to attend in-laboratory PSG with CPAP titration or home monitoring with a portable APAP unit. No difference was observed between lab PSG and home-managed patients for any of the outcome measures. Senn et al. (2006) assessed whether an empirical approach, using a 2-week trial of APAP, could effectively diagnose OSA.7 Patients (N = 76) were included in the study if they had been referred by primary care physicians for evaluation of suspected OSA, were habitual snorers, complained of daytime sleepiness, and had an ESS score of 8 or greater (mean, 13.6). At the end of the 2-week trial, patients were asked to rate the perceived effect of treatment and to indicate whether they had used CPAP for more than 2 hours per night and were willing to continue treatment. Patients without a clear benefit of CPAP received a further evaluation, including clinical assessment and PSG. Compared with PSG, patient responses showed a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 97%, and a negative predictive value of 78%.
Berry et al. (2008) randomized 106 patients referred for a sleep study for suspected OSA at a local Veterans Administration center to portable monitoring followed by APAP or to PSG for diagnosis and treatment.8 Patients were screened with a detailed sleep and medical history questionnaire, and patients on α-blockers or not in sinus rhythm were excluded due to the type of portable monitoring device used (Watch-PAT 100). Of the 53 patients randomized to PSG, 6 (11%) did not have PSG-defined OSA; in the portable monitoring arm, 4 (8%) of 53 patients were found not to have OSA. Treatment outcomes were similar in both groups, with a 7-point improvement in ESS score, 3-point improvement in the FOSQ score, and a machine estimate of residual AHI of 3.5 events per hour in the portable monitoring APAP group and 5.3 in the PSG group.
The racial/ethnic diversity of enrolled patients was not reported in any of the above RCTs. More than 75% of enrolled patients in all 3 trials were men.
Apnea Risk Evaluation System
Nonrandomized Comparative Studies
Ayappa et al. (2008) reported on a validation study of a small apnea monitor that is self-applied to the forehead.9 The device measures blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate, airflow, snoring levels, head movement, and head position. The study enrolled 80 individuals with a high likelihood of OSA and 22 with a low risk of OSA; results of simultaneous Apnea Risk Evaluation System recording and PSG were available for 92 individuals. When healthy subjects were excluded from the analysis, sensitivity (91%) and specificity (92%) were relatively high for an AHI of 15 or more events per hour but dropped considerably with an AHI between 5 and 15 (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 78%). Five percent of the subjects could not tolerate the device and were excluded from the analysis.
Randomized Controlled Trials
The SleepImage System is cloud-based software as a medical device that generates AHI from data recorded with a single photoplethysmogram sensor. The SleepImage algorithms calculate heart rate variability, respiration, and oxygen saturation with cardiopulmonary coupling analysis. Hilmisson et al. (2020) compared results calculated by the SleepImage System with manually scored PSG in 805 children 5 to 9.9 yrs of age who participated in the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT).10 The CHAT study included 1244 habitually snoring children who were referred for PSG. A total of 805 children had successfully collected data from the sensor, while 439 did not. Of the 805 children with data, 47% were male, 61% were African American, and 29% were White. Concordance between the SleepImage-derived AHI and PSG-derived AHI in the successful recordings is shown in Table 4. Kappa was 0.81, 0.89, and 0.91 for mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea, respectively. A proposed benefit is that this would be easier for children compared to a test requiring multiple sensors in a sleep laboratory and improve access. Further study in a wider population is needed to evaluate whether this system might be a suitable method for evaluating sleep parameters in the home.
Table 4. Clinical Validity of the SleepImage System
|Study||Initial N||Final N||Excluded Samples||Prevalence of Condition||Clinical Validity:
Agreement (95% CI)
|Mild Sleep Apnea
AHI > 1.0
|Moderate Sleep Apnea
AHI > 5.0
AHI > 10.0
|Hilmission et al. (2020)10||1244||805||439||64%||0.914 (0.895 to 0.934)||0.967 (0.954 to 0.979)||0.986 (0.978 to 0.994)|
AHI: Apnea/Hypopnea Index; CI: confidence interval.
Subsection Summary: Limited Channel Home Sleep Apnea Testing
The evidence for limited channel home sleep apnea testing (includes type 4 monitors) in patients who have OSA consists of studies on diagnostic accuracy. A number of questions remain about the ability of these home sleep apnea tests to detect clinically significant OSA without sensors for respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation (or alternatively PAT, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation).
Summary of Evidence
For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive home sleep apnea testing with at least 3 recording channels, the evidence includes RCTs. Relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. The RCTs have reported that home sleep apnea testing (with sensors for respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively with PAT, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation) is noninferior to testing in the sleep lab for adults with a high pretest probability of OSA and absence of comorbid conditions as determined by clinical evaluation. A positive portable monitoring study with channels that include arterial oxygen saturation, airflow, and respiratory effort has a high positive predictive value for OSA and can be used as the basis for a CPAP trial to determine the efficacy of treatment. A negative portable monitoring study cannot be used to rule out OSA. Patients who have a negative result from portable monitoring or have a positive study but do not respond to CPAP should undergo further evaluation. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in an improvement in the net health outcome.
For individuals who have suspected OSA who receive limited channel home sleep apnea testing, the evidence includes studies on diagnostic accuracy. Relevant outcomes are test accuracy, symptoms, functional outcomes, and resource utilization. The ability to detect clinically significant OSA without sensors for respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, or alternatively without PAT, actigraphy, and oxygen saturation, lacks support in the literature. The evidence is insufficient to determine that the technology results in an improvement in the net health outcome.
The purpose of the following information is to provide reference material. Inclusion does not imply endorsement or alignment with the evidence review conclusions.
Clinical Input From Physician Specialty Societies and Academic Medical Centers
While the various physician specialty societies and academic medical centers may collaborate with and make recommendations during this process, through the provision of appropriate reviewers, input received does not represent an endorsement or position statement by the physician specialty societies or academic medical centers, unless otherwise noted.
In response to requests, input was received from 7 physician specialty societies (8 reviewers) and 4 academic medical centers (6 reviewers) while this policy was under review in 2014. Input focused on the routine screening of patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery. There was a consensus that routine screening is considered medically necessary in this population due to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2, combined with the increased rate of perioperative complications in patients with OSA. The input was mixed on whether the use of portable home sleep testing was appropriate for patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. Concerns were raised about the high prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in this population, which is a contraindication to home sleep testing. Other reviewers considered home sleep testing to be appropriate in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery, with the caveat that obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be ruled out prior to home sleep testing.
In response to requests, input was received from 1 physician specialty society and 6 academic medical centers (8 reviewers) while this policy was under review in 2010. Input focused on the sensors required for unattended home sleep studies and on diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children. In general, reviewers supported the requirement that home monitors measure 4 parameters, including respiratory effort, airflow, and oxygen saturation, and their use is restricted to adults. Some exceptions were noted for specific situations. The 2010 update included recommendations from reviewers on indications specific to pediatric patients.
In response to requests, input was received from 5 physician specialty societies (6 reviewers) and 3 academic medical centers while this policy was under review in 2009. Professional society guidelines and position statements were also reviewed. In general, input supported the use of polysomnography (PSG), portable sleep monitoring tests, multiple sleep latency tests, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for adults as described in the policy. The update included reviewers' recommendations for clarifications and modifications to the policy statements.
Practice Guidelines and Position Statements
Guidelines or position statements will be considered for inclusion in Supplemental Information if they were issued by, or jointly by, a U.S. professional society, an international society with U.S. representation, or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Priority will be given to guidelines that are informed by a systematic review, include strength of evidence ratings, and include a description of management of conflict of interest.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
In 2017, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) published clinical practice guidelines on diagnostic testing for adult OSA.11 AASM provided the following recommendations (Table 5).
Table 5. Recommendations on Diagnostic Testing for Adult OSA
|Recommendation Statement||SOR||QOE||Benefits vs Harms|
|We recommend that clinical tools, questionnaires, and prediction algorithms not be used to diagnose OSA in adults, in the absence of PSG or HSAT||Strong||Moderate||High certainty that harms outweigh benefits|
|We recommend that PSG, or HSAT with a technically adequate device, be used for the diagnosis of OSA in uncomplicated adult patients presenting with signs and symptoms that indicate an increased risk of moderate to severe OSA.||Strong||Moderate||High certainty that benefits outweigh harms|
|We recommend that if a single HSAT is negative, inconclusive, or technically inadequate, PSG be performed for the diagnosis of OSA.||Strong||Low||High certainty that benefits outweigh harms|
|We recommend that PSG, rather than home sleep testing, be used for patients with significant cardiorespiratory disorder, potential respiratory muscle weakness, awake or suspected sleep hypoventilation, chronic opioid medication use, history of stoke or severe insomnia.||Strong||Very low||High certainty that benefits outweigh harms|
|We suggest that, if clinically appropriate, a split-night diagnostic protocol, rather than a full-night diagnostic protocol for PSG be used for the diagnosis of OSA||Weak||Low||Low certainty that benefits outweigh harms|
|We suggest that when the initial PSG is negative, and there is still clinical suspicion for OSA, a second PSG be considered for the diagnosis of OSA.||Weak||Very low||Low certainty that benefits outweigh harms|
HSAT: home sleep apnea testing; OSA: obstructive sleep apnea; PSG: polysomnography; QOE: quality of evidence; SOR: strength of recommendation.
The AASM considers a technically adequate home sleep apnea test (HSAT) device to incorporate "a minimum of the following sensors: nasal pressure, chest and abdominal respiratory inductance plethysmography, and oximetry; or else PAT [peripheral arterial tone] with oximetry and actigraphy." The guidelines refer to the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events for additional information regarding HSAT sensor requirements.
In 2021, the AASM published a guidance statement that focuses on indications for follow-up sleep apnea testing with PSG or home sleep apnea tests in patients with OSA.12 The following clinical guidance statements were provided:
- "Follow-up PSG or HSAT is not recommended for routine reassessment of asymptomatic patients with obstructive sleep apnea on PAP therapy, however, follow-up PSG or HSAT can be used to reassess patients with recurrent or persistent symptoms, despite good PAP adherence.
- Follow-up PSG or HSAT is recommended to assess response to treatment with non-PAP interventions.
- Follow-up PSG or HSAT may be used if clinically significant weight gain or loss has occurred since diagnosis of OSA or initiation of its treatment.
- Follow-up PSG may be used for reassessment of sleep-related hypoxemia and/or sleep-related hypoventilation following initiation of treatment for OSA.
- Follow-up PSG or HSAT may be used in patients being treated for OSA who develop or have a change in cardiovascular disease.
- Follow-up PSG may be used in patients with unexplained PAP device-generated data."
The AASM also issued guidelines in 2009 on the evaluation, management, and long-term care of adults with OSA.13 The levels of recommendation are "standard" (generally accepted patient-care strategy, with a high degree of certainty; level 1 to 2 evidence), "guideline" (moderate degree of clinical certainty; level 2 to 3 evidence), or "option" (uncertain clinical use; insufficient or inconclusive evidence).
American Academy of Pediatrics
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP; 2012) published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated childhood OSA associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and/or obesity in an otherwise healthy child treated in the primary care setting, which updated the AAP's 2002 guidelines.14,15 AAP recommended that all children or adolescents be screened for snoring, and PSG is performed in children or adolescents with snoring and symptoms or signs of OSA as listed in the guideline. If PSG is not available, an alternative diagnostic test or referral to a specialist may be considered (option). The estimated prevalence rates of OSA in children or adolescents ranged from 1.2% to 5.7%.
American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
The American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (2012) published guidelines on the perioperative management of OSA (reviewed in October 2015).16 The guidelines noted that while some reports in the literature have recommended routine screening for OSA prior to bariatric surgery, other reports have suggested clinical screening only does not result in any increase in postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and that most current surgical practices refer patients with clinical symptoms of OSA for PSG, but do not make this a routine preoperative test prior to bariatric surgery. The Society provided, based on the evidence in the literature to date, the following guidelines on OSA in the bariatric surgery patient and its perioperative management:
1. "OSA is highly prevalent in the bariatric patient population ….
4. [Patients with moderate to severe OSA] should bring their CPAP machines, or at least their masks, with them at the time of surgery and use them following bariatric surgery at the discretion of the surgeon.
7. Routine pulse oximetry or capnography for postoperative monitoring of patients with OSA after bariatric surgery should be utilized, but the majority of these patients do not routinely require an ICU [intensive care unit] setting.
8. No clear guidelines exist upon which to base recommendations for retesting for OSA following bariatric surgery …."
American Heart Association
In 2021, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a scientific statement on OSA and cardiovascular disease.17 The treatment options for OSA and eligibility for their use are described in the statement.
Recommendations for screening for OSA are as follows:
- "We recommend screening for OSA in patients with resistant/poorly controlled hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and recurrent atrial fibrillation after either cardioversion or ablation."
- "In patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart failure and suspicion of sleep-disordered breathing or excessive daytime sleepiness, a formal sleep assessment is reasonable."
- "In patients with tachy-brady syndrome or ventricular tachycardia or survivors of sudden cardiac death in whom sleep apnea is suspected after a comprehensive sleep assessment, evaluation for sleep apnea should be considered."
- "After stroke, clinical equipoise exists with respect to screening and treatment."
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2017) reported on the evidence for screening for OSA in adults and concluded that "the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance and harms of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in asymptomatic adults. Evidence on screening tools to accurately detect persons in asymptomatic populations who should receive further testing and treatment of subsequently diagnosed OSA to improve health outcomes is lacking, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined."18,19
Ongoing and Unpublished Clinical Trials
A search of ClinicalTrials.gov in April 2022 identified over 100 ongoing studies on the diagnosis of OSA.
- Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/american College Of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council On Cardiovascular Nursing. In collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (National Institutes of Health). Circulation. Sep 02 2008; 118(10): 1080-111. PMID 18725495
- Kushida CA, Littner MR, Morgenthaler T, et al. Practice parameters for the indications for polysomnography and related procedures: an update for 2005. Sleep. Apr 2005; 28(4): 499-521. PMID 16171294
- Crook S, Sievi NA, Bloch KE, et al. Minimum important difference of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in obstructive sleep apnoea: estimation from three randomised controlled trials. Thorax. Apr 2019; 74(4): 390-396. PMID 30100576
- Balk EM, Moorthy D, Obadan NO, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 32 (AHRQ Publication No. 11-EHC052-EF). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.
- Corral J, Sanchez-Quiroga MA, Carmona-Bernal C, et al. Conventional Polysomnography Is Not Necessary for the Management of Most Patients with Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Nov 01 2017; 196(9): 1181-1190. PMID 28636405
- Mulgrew AT, Fox N, Ayas NT, et al. Diagnosis and initial management of obstructive sleep apnea without polysomnography: a randomized validation study. Ann Intern Med. Feb 06 2007; 146(3): 157-66. PMID 17283346
- Senn O, Brack T, Russi EW, et al. A continuous positive airway pressure trial as a novel approach to the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest. Jan 2006; 129(1): 67-75. PMID 16424414
- Berry RB, Hill G, Thompson L, et al. Portable monitoring and autotitration versus polysomnography for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea. Sleep. Oct 2008; 31(10): 1423-31. PMID 18853940
- Ayappa I, Norman RG, Seelall V, et al. Validation of a self-applied unattended monitor for sleep disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med. Feb 15 2008; 4(1): 26-37. PMID 18350959
- Hilmisson H, Berman S, Magnusdottir S. Sleep apnea diagnosis in children using software-generated apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) derived from data recorded with a single photoplethysmogram sensor (PPG) : Results from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Study (CHAT) based on cardiopulmonary coupling analysis. Sleep Breath. Dec 2020; 24(4): 1739-1749. PMID 32222900
- Kapur VK, Auckley DH, Chowdhuri S, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnostic Testing for Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. Mar 15 2017; 13(3): 479-504. PMID 28162150
- Caples SM, Anderson WM, Calero K, et al. Use of polysomnography and home sleep apnea tests for the longitudinal management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical guidance statement. J Clin Sleep Med. Jun 01 2021; 17(6): 1287-1293. PMID 33704050
- Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ, et al. Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. Jun 15 2009; 5(3): 263-76. PMID 19960649
- Section on Pediatric Pulmonology, Subcommittee on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. Apr 2002; 109(4): 704-12. PMID 11927718
- Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, et al. Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. Sep 2012; 130(3): 576-84. PMID 22926173
- ASMBS Clinical Issues Committee. Peri-operative management of obstructive sleep apnea. Surg Obes Relat Dis. May-Jun 2012; 8(3): e27-32. PMID 22503595
- Yeghiazarians Y, Jneid H, Tietjens JR, et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. Jul 20 2021; 144(3): e56-e67. PMID 34148375
- Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. Jan 24 2017; 317(4): 407-414. PMID 28118461
- Jonas DE, Amick HR, Feltner C, et al. Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. Jan 24 2017; 317(4): 415-433. PMID 28118460
- Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS Manual System: Pub 100-03 Medicare National Coverage Determinations. Decision memo for sleep testing for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (CAG-00405N). 2009; https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/nca-decision-memo.aspx?NCAId=227&ver=11&NcaName=Sleep+Testing+for+Obstructive+Sleep+Apnea+(OSA)&CoverageSelection=National&KeyWord=sleep+testing&KeyWordLookUp=Title&KeyWordSearchType=And&bc=gAAAACAAEAAA& Accessed April 18, 2022
|CPT||94660||Continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP), initiation and management|
|94762||Noninvasive ear or pulse oximetry for oxygen saturation; by continuous overnight monitoring (separate procedure)|
|95800||Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory analysis (e.g., by airflow or peripheral arterial tone), and sleep time|
|95801||Sleep study, unattended, simultaneous recording; minimum of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory analysis (e.g., by airflow or peripheral arterial tone)|
|95806-95811; 95782-95783||Polysomnography and sleep studies code range. See Policy Guidelines for further details|
|HCPCS||A7027||Combination oral/nasal mask, used with continuous positive airway pressure device, each|
|A7028||Oral cushion for combination oral/nasal mask, replacement only, each|
|A7029||Nasal pillow for combination oral/nasal mask, replacement only, pair|
|A7034||Nasal interface (mask or cannula type) used with positive airway pressure device, with or without head strap|
|A7035||Headgear used with positive airway pressure device|
|A7036||Chin strap used with positive airway pressure device|
|A7037||Tubing used with positive airway pressure device|
|A7038||Filter, disposable, used with positive airway pressure device|
|A7039||Filter, nondisposable, used with positive airway pressure device|
|E0470||Respiratory assist device, bilevel pressure capability, without backup rate feature, used with noninvasive interface, e.g., nasal or facial mask (intermittent assist device with continuous positive airway pressure device)|
|E0471||Respiratory assist device, bilevel pressure capability, with backup rate feature, used with noninvasive interface, e.g., nasal or facial mask (intermittent assist device with continuous positive airway pressure device)|
|E0485||Oral device/appliance used to reduce upper airway collapsibility, adjustable or nonadjustable, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment|
|E0486||Oral device/appliance used to reduce upper airway collapsibility, adjustable or nonadjustable, custom fabricated, includes fitting and adjustment|
|E0561||Humidifier, nonheated, used with positive airway pressure device|
|E0562||Humidifier, heated, used with positive airway pressure device|
|E0601||Continuous airway pressure (CPAP) device|
|G0398||Home sleep study test (HST) with type II portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 7 channels: Ee.g., EMG, ECG/heart rate, airflow, respiratory effort and oxygen saturation|
|G0399||Home sleep test (HST) with type III portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 4 channels: 2 respiratory movement/airflow, 1 ECG/heart rate and 1 oxygen saturation|
|G0400||Home sleep test (HST) with type IV portable monitor, unattended; minimum of 3 channels|
|ICD-10-CM||G47.33||Obstructive sleep apnea (adult) (pediatric)|
|R06.81||Apnea, not elsewhere classified elsewhere|
|G47.30||Sleep apnea, unspecified|
|G47.8||Other sleep disorders|
|G47.9||Sleep disorder unspecified|
|ICD-10-PCS||ICD-10-PCS codes are only used for inpatient services.|
|Type of Service||Medical|
|Place of Service||Outpatient Physician's office Home (CPAP only)|
Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.
This medical policy was developed through consideration of peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, U.S. FDA approval status, nationally accepted standards of medical practice and accepted standards of medical practice in this community, Blue Cross Blue Shield Association technology assessment program (TEC) and other nonaffiliated technology evaluation centers, reference to federal regulations, other plan medical policies, and accredited national guidelines.
"Current Procedural Terminology © American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved"
History From 2014 Forward
|10/17/2022||Added replacement supplies are covered based on medical necessity; however, the maximum allowed frequency.|
|08/18/2022||Interim review, This policy is being separated into 2 policies. This one is for the diagnosis of OSA and a new policy, CAM 80167 will be created for the medical management of OSA.|
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating description, regulatory status, rationale and references.
Corrected typo in history box. No other changes made.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating guidelines, coding, rationale and references.
Annual review, no change to policy intent.
Correcting Typo. No other changes made.
Correcting policy verbiage that was removed in error. No other changes made.
Interim review to add code K1001 and add policy statement regarding this technology as not medically necessary.
Interim review updating policy to update language regarding home sleep studies. Changing verbiage to home sleep apnea test and updating the description of devices adequate for performing this testing. In relation to that, will be updating background, description, rationale and references.
Interim review to update coding and add A4604, A7027 and A7046 to frequency table on page 6. No other changes made.
Corrected typo in policy section. No other changes.
Updated policy section. No other changes.
Annual review, updating policy verbiage regarding supervised polysomnography from: Supervised polysomnography in a sleep laboratory may be considered MEDICALLY NECESSARY as a diagnostic test in patients with any of the following (1-3): Also updated description, background, policy guidelines, rationale and references
Corrected 'Nasal' typo under section Compliance Documentation (A7032).
Interim review to expand medical necessity criteria related to oral appliances. Expansion allows that failed APAP trial is no longer required for patients with greater than 5 and less than or equal to 30 AHI/hr. If greater than 30 AHI/ hr, will still require APAP trial unless contraindicated. No other changes made.
Annual review, adding investigational statement related to palate and mandible expansion devices. Also updating description, background, regulatory status, rationale and references.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, rationale and references.
Interim review, removing CPAP as the standard of care and replacing it with APAP.
Annual review, no change to policy intent. Updating background, description, related policies, guidelines, rationale and references.
Correcting annual review from May. Returning a missing paragraph to the policy.
Annual review,updated background, description, rationale, references, guidelines, benefit application, rationale and references. Added coding. Significant changes to policy criteria for home based and laboratory based sleep studies. Also added a statement that screening of bariatric surgery patients may be medically necessary.
Annual review. Updated description, background, guidelines, benefit applications, rationale and references. Added related policy. Added the following language to the policy section:The use of an abbreviated daytime sleep study (PAP-NAP) as a supplement to standard sleep studies is considered investigational. Multiple sleep latency testing is considered not medically necessary in the diagnosis of OSA except to exclude or confirm narcoplepsy in the diagnostic workup of OSA syndrome. auto-adjusting CPAP may be considered medically necessary during a 2-week trial to initiate and titrate CPAP in adult patients with clinically significant OSA. the word "single" has been added to the policy verbiage regarding unattended home sleep study.
Added policy verbiage, reference and rationale indicating that oral pressure therapy (Winx Sleep Therapy System) is investigational.